There are various forms of energy as heat, electricity, light, sound etc. These different forms of energy are obtained from different sources, for example heat is obtained from wood, coal, mineral, oil etc etc. Any material is regarded as a source of energy only when man succeeds in devising a proper technology to extract energy from the material. Thus coal was only a simple black rock until it was used to produce heat to work a steam engine. It was not the source of energy unless this fact was discovered that at a high temp. it begins to burn and produce tremendous heat. Hence we conclude that any agent can be awarded the title of a source of energy only if man by using his intellect succeeds in exploiting it to produce some useful energy. This is why coal is regarded as a source of energy whereas stone is not. This fact furnishes the logic working behind the efforts for discovering new sources of energy. But to what extent are we emancipated and accommodative in this regard? This is question which carries a giant question mark after it. For example, earth’s gravitational pull, conventionally termed as “gravity” is a source of energy? Perhaps not, because it is available in abundance everywhere in the world but nowhere it is used to do some work. Do we lack a proper technology to utilize ‘gravity’ as a source of energy? The answer is an obvious ‘yes’. However, man is already using gravity as a source of energy on a small scale when small flour mills are run by mini waterfalls or electricity is generated with the help of huge waterfalls in hydroelectric projects. In both the cases the kinetic and potential energy of water is used and thinking critically it is revealed that both these types of energy are produced in water due to gravitational potential difference between a higher and a lower level. The water in a water fall, falls under the influence of gravity acquiring kinetic energy due to motion while its fluidity helps it to fall smoothly and swiftly turning the pedals of a wheel. Besides the weight of the innumerable water molecules falling of the pedals also assists in turning the wheel, again a use of gravity in the form of potential energy. Therefore, it is clear that we already use gravity as a source of energy but its use is limited due to limited availability of water falls or due to scarcity of hydroelectric projects. In other words we can safely say that if some new technology is developed which utilizes gravity without depending upon water falls, there will be a revolution in the history of energy production and it is quite possible that the conventional concept and definition of energy may get revolutionised in the light of this technology. In the proceeding part of this account, the author discusses five hypothetical mechanical systems to utilise the force of gravity as a source of energy.
Towards Gravity Engine
- Bashir’s Latitude Difference Engine.
- Bashir’s Inclined Plane Engine.
- Bashir’s Buoyancy Engine.
- Bashir’s Buoyancy Inclined Plane Engine.
- Bashir’s Gravity Engine (BGE)
1) Bashir’s Latitude Difference Engine
It is a known fact the value of acceleration due to gravity ‘g’ is comparatively higher at poles that at equator, so that, the weight (mg) of a body is more at poles that the weight of the same body at the equator.
Now consider a very long road supported at its centre and the support placed at a suitable place on globe, so that, ideally one end of the road remains very near to one of the poles of the globe and the other end reaches close to the equator. Also consider two bodies of equal masses suspended from the two ends of the rod, This system , is shown in fig. 1(a).
Fig – a & b
Obviously, for the reasons mentioned above, the system S1 will be deflected in anti-clockwise direction. Now think of many such systems S2, S3…. Arranged on a common support as shown below in fig. 1(b)
The above system is supposed to move perpetually in anti-clockwise direction without the supply of any conventional form of energy from outside, as there is always a difference of weight between left side and the right side of the system. We are aware of the failure of the earlier attempts of developing a perpetual machine but to arrive at a practically working model using gravity as its source of energy, we must consider such hypothetical systems as hypothesis has always been an important step in scientific method of research.
2) Bashir’s Buoyancy Engine
The concept of difference of gravity in ‘Latitude Difference Engine’ is modified to give rise to the phenomenon of “dilution of gravity”, used to work Buoyancy Engine. “Dilution of gravity”, is in fact a deliberate creation of difference of gravity between the two parts of a system, by diluting value of ‘g’ for a particular component of the system with the help of some mechanical aid. The mechanical arrangement is shown in the fig. 2.
The bodies suspended from the wheel in the liquid chamber due to buoyancy effect lose weight, whereas the bodies in air don’t suffer any loss of weight, resulting in the clockwise rotation of the wheel. As the wheel moves in clock wise direction bodies come out of the liquid chamber and the bodies in the air get in, to take their position. In this way there is a continuous loss of weight in the bodies immersed in the liquid because of dilution of gravity due to gravity and the system keeps on rotating. This engine can be modified in a number of ways, among which one is shown in ‘Bashir’s Inclined plane Buoyancy Engines’ discussed latter.’
Bashir’s Inclined Plane Engine
A wheel having suspended weights as used in Byoyancy Engine, shall be fitted near a frictions less inclined plane. Weights of one half of the wheel shall fall on an inclined plane and will be pulled up by one freely suspending weights of the other half. (See fig. below) The weights have been made here in the form of a small wheels so that these can slide easily on an inclined plane. Actually the system works because the weights on inclined plane suffers a loss of weight whereas freely suspending weights don’t, as shown in calculations below.
To calculate the loss of weight of a single body on the inclined plane and a consequent gain in force, let us take the example of a body of 500 gms. Placed on the inclined plane on 30° angle of inclination, pulled up by a similar body of 500 gms suspended with the help of a pulley as shown in fig below
It is clear from the fig. that the force required to pull the body upward parallel to the inclined plane is equal to, Mg sin 30° + Friction (F), because Mg cos 30° is neutralised
Now, Mg sin 30° + F = 500 × .5 + µMg cos 30°.
(Because, F∞ R∞ Mg cos 30° or F=µMg cos 30°, where µ is coefficient of limiting friction.)
Thus force required to pull 500 gms. parallel to the inclined plane upwards = 500×.5+.2×500×.8660 (supposing µ=.2). = 336.60 gms wt.
Pulling force available = 500 gms. Wt. (consider pulley to be frictionless).
Therefore, gain in force = 500 – 336.60 = 163.40 gms. wt.
However, in our system this ideal case of action of inclined plane is not possible. In inclined engine the pulling force does not always act parallel to the inclined plane but its direction of action may make an angle α with the inclined plane as shown in fig.
Thus only a component of this force acts parallel to the inclined plane. There are some peculiarities also for a particular body of our system at a particular moment of time. The case may be:
Component of the pulling force acting parallel to the inclined plane, is equal to Mg sinα.cosβ.cosθ, where,
- α is the angle between the inclined plane and the pulling sting of the weight falling on it.
- β is the angle between the pulling string and the tangent passing through the point of contact of the string with the wheel.
- ϒ is the angle between the vertical and the radius touching the contact point of the string of falling weight.
The force required to pull the body parallel to the inclined plane =Mg Sinθ+ Mg Cosθ.
In an ideal system of Inclined Plane Engine, it is expected that several bodies will always fall on inclined plane, so that, so that different bodies will have different values of α,β and ϒ. Thus it is expected that the wheel will turn clock-wise as the bodies hanging from the right side of wheel don’t suffer any loss of weight or in other words mechanical advantage of the inclined plane will help to keep the machine working. The law of inertia and the momentum gained will also be positive factors.
The calculations given above, perhaps need a thorough review. However, according to the present calculations to have maximum gain in force following conditions are to be created in Inclined Plane Engine.
The angle of inclination of inclined plane should be as small as possible which necessitates larger diameter of wheel.
- To have maximum number of bodies on the inclined plane, the diameter of the wheel should be as larger as possible.
- The wheel should be made up of very light metal whereas the bodies should be preferably made up of lead like heavy metal, so that, a slight gain in force displaces the system.
- To have low values of friction, the bodies suspended from the wheel, should be in the form of wheel, rolling up the inclined plane, around their axels.
- Further, the inclined plane should be sooth.
Bashir’s Byoyancy Inclined Plane Engine
In this modification benefits of both Buoyancy Engine and Inclined Plane Engine are combined by placing any liquid in pits provided on the inclined plane so that, weights are pulled up along an inclined plane by the freely suspending weights as shown in fig. 4.
Bashir’s Gravity Engine (BGE)
No energy is usable unless some potential difference whether electrical, thermal, chemical, configurational or gravitational exists between two points in a system. All these types of potential differences are found in nature and man either uses these directly by carrying logs of wood in moving water or drawing underground water by wind mill or he may convert one type of natural potential difference into another as producing electricity from running water, solar radiation, chemical or nuclear fuel. But one important point which is overlooked here is the role played by natural human intellect in exploiting the natural properties of material or natural phenomenon. The author in this paper discusses a system in which an important natural phenomenon with respect to liquids termed as ‘dilution of gravity by buoyancy ‘is exploited to create gravitational potential difference, so that, a machine works using a huge resource of earth’s gravitational pull as its source its energy. In this machine termed GRAVITY ENGINE, one vertical half of wheel is made to lose weight do to buoyancy, so that, the other pulls it. This is not a perpetual motion machine as it works on gravitational energy though the relevance of Law of Conservation of Energy with respect to this engine is yet to be investigated.
The Gravity Engine consists of a liquid chamber LC and a Gravity Wheel, GW fitted in it.
Liquid Chamber LC :
The liquid chamber is a metallic or plastic container filled with water or some other dense liquid.
Gravity Wheel, GW:
It is a specially designed hollow tin wheel divided internally into conical Chambers termed as air chambers. AC. which run from centre to periphery. The pointed end of the conical chamber being towards centre. The wheel moves vertically round a centrally fitted ball bearing. BB. The axle of the BB is fitted on a vertical stand ‘ST’ to keep the gravity wheel in erect position in the liquid chamber. The ball bearing carries an endless belt, BT, on it which transmits the motion to a load wheel ‘LW’ fitted outside the liquid chamber and this is the point where some load can be put or work done.
Gravity Diluting Bladders, GDB:
The force generating part of the gravity wheel are gravity diluting Bladders, GDB fixed and distributed equidistantly all along the rim of gravity wheel. Every bladder is a conical rubber balloon with a hard plate HP, made of metal or plastic on Its outer side whereas, the inner side is fixed to the rim of the gravity wheel. The wider side of the conical bladder is wrinkled to allow for inflation and de-inflation of the bladder. Every bladder is connected to a respective air chamber of the gravity wheel through an opening OP.
The bladder contains a steel spring SP, cast in the form of spiral, so that, when compressed rings of the spring accommodate in one another occupying minimum space. The stress of the spring nearly equals the total force on the outer surface of the bladder due to liquid pressure at the bottom of the wheel. The remaining part or the pressure inside the bladder is compensated by air at low pressure, so that, when the spring is in the released (uncompressed) form the bladder is inflated completely by a joint action of spring and air .
Mechanical Lock, ML
This is an automatic mechanical lock, fixed to the hard plate of every bladder on its outer side and the rim of the gravity wheel, so that, if the bladder is de-inflated it gets automatically locked with minimum friction.
De–inflating Bearing, DB:
It is a small ball bearing with its axle joined with a shaft which fixes with ceiling of the liquid chamber at a point which lies a bit to one side of the mid-point of the ceiling, so to right side of mid-point. The bearing is brought just close to the rim of gravity wheel.
Releasing Lever, RL:
This is fixed to the bottom or liquid chamber at a point, just vertically below, the de-inflating bearing and not at the centre. This lever releases the mechanical lock of the bladder when it reaches near it, with minimum friction.
Now concentrating on the working of various parts of the gravity engine, let us first of all discuss a gravity diluting bladder GDB, lying at the bottom of the liquid chamber, LC, just near releasing lever RL. As the net pressure on the inner walls of the bladder due to air in it and the stress of the spring, SP, exactly equals the pressure due to liquid outside the bladder, therefore, the bladder remains fully inflated, thereby causing an up-thrust due to buoyancy which tends to rotate the wheel in an anticlockwise direction. The other bladders attached to the gravity wheel right from the the lower most bladder to the uppermost bladder just near DB, also tend to rotate the wheel in the Same
direction or in other words we can say that the left half of the wheel which doesn’t suffer any loss of weight tends to pull the gravity wheel. As this motion commences the uppermost GDB is compressed the rings of the spiral spring, SP fitting in one another and taking almost negligible space, and the air at low pressure being pumped into the air
chamber AC of gravity wheel through the opening 0P, provided for the purpose. While this bladder is completely de-inflated the mechanical lock ML locks the hard plate HP, of the bladder with the rim of gravity wheel with minimum possible friction, in such a manner that the volume of bladder becomes approximately negligible. In this way we have squeezed bladders on the left side of the gravity wheel with approximately no volume.
The de-inflated bladder reaching just new the releasing lever RL at the base of the gravity wheel gets again inflated as its lock is released with RL, and it gets inflated by the joint action of stress of the spring SP and air pressure of the air chamber AC, as air enters the bladders through opening OP again.
All this arrangement ensures that there is unbalanced force of buoyancy on the right side of the gravity wheel which causes a continuous anti clockwise motion. As DB and RL lie in a vertical line just a bit right to vertical diameter, this avoids any negative effect of the up thrust due to bladders at the vertical diameter.
From a critical study of the system this becomes clear that here the energy is harnessed only from gravitational potential difference between right and left halves of the gravity wheel and this gravitational potential difference is created by exploiting the natural property (phenomenon) of buoyancy of liquids which counteracts or dilutes force
of gravity. This is the basic assertion of the author mentioned in the synopsis also.
Let there be a gravity wheel of radius r, immersed in a liquid of density ρ with the lowermost point of wheel lying at a depth of ‘D’ from the free surface and the uppermost point at a depth of ‘d’ from the free surface of the liquid. Let v be the volume of bladder and ‘g’ be the acceleration due to gravity at a place where gravity engine is installed.
The pressure of the liquid outside the lowermost bladder = ρgD.
Total force on the outer walls of the bladder = ρgDv.
Therefore, total force required to keep the bladder in inflated condition = ρgDv
[Force ρgDv is created by spring and air inside the bladder].
Therefore, force required to de-inflate the uppermost bladder will be approximately
equal to ρgDv – ρgdv
= ρgv(D-d) = ρgv(diameter of the wheel)
Force of buoyancy by one bladder is the wt. of volume of the liquid displaced = ρgv
Total force of buoyancy available = ρgvn
Where ‘n’ is the number of bladders in a gravity wheel.
Gain in force in the gravity wheel, = [ρgvn] – [ρgv2r]
= ρgv(n-2r) = ρgvr(n/r – 2)
Therefore, it is clear from above formula that to increase gain in force in a gravity engine we can increase ρ, the density of liquid, v, the volume of the bladder and n the number of the bladders in a gravity wheel. But ‘n’ can not be increased beyond a certain limit for a particular circumference (2πr) of the wheel and to the increase it beyond a certain limit ‘r’ the radius of the wheel is to be increased. We should not be confused to find ‘r’ in denominator of the expression because increasing ‘r’ increases circumference (2πr) proportionately which allows us to increase ‘n’ accordingly. Keeping all other things constant if only ‘r’ is doubled gain in force is also doubled.
Conclusion and Discussion:
A conventional scientist may manipulate his/her mathematics (which itself is based on some assumptions and biased by conventional paradigms) and ‘prove’ that this system is a perpetual motion machine and no work output is possible out of the gravity engine under discussion, but then he/she has to answer one question: why should this unbalanced ‘gravity wheel’ stop in which force Gain = ρgvr(n/r – 2) Here this point should be stressed that many inflated bladders have to de -inflate only one bladder and to increase the number of inflated bladders is within our means without any counter productive effect. –
Further, when one bladder is de-inflated spending some energy at the top, another gets inflated at the bottom simultaneously releasing same energy and the effect of the other inflated bladders remains in store. If this happens practically (which is yet to be seen) then the relevance of law of conservation of energy with respect to this machine is to be investigated.