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Work done in the field of Chemistry

Jabir b. Hayyan (2nd century AH/8th century AD) and Abu-Bakr al-Razi (d. 313 AH/925 AD) respectively called as Geber and Rhazes by medieval Latinas are actually fathers of experimental chemistry. Both have no doubt neglected theory at the cost of experimentation. Jabir made instruments and discussed acids, metals, sprits, and processes to deal with them. Al-Razi, though basically a clinical doctor, has discussed chemical processes like solution making evaporation, distillation, crystallization, sublimation, filtration, calcination, amalgamation, ceration etc. He classified mineral substances including those artificially obtained by him.

Illustration-of-a-grenade-from-a-manuscript-of-al-Rammah.-Thirteenth-century-AD.-Bibliotheque-Nationale-Paris

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