Islamic engineering includes civil engineering used to construct mosques, houses, ships and forts. Mechanical engineering was employed in development of weapons of war as trebuchet (14th century AD), water raising machines (13th-16th century AD) and other implements. Chemical engineering was utilized to develop incendiary missiles, rockets (13th century AD), extraction of metals, dyes, soaps, inks, perfumes, leather, ceramics, textiles, varnishes, glass-ware, acids, paper etc. throughout Islamic period of S&T.
Kashmir has been centre of art of metallurgy and paper making in its early Muslim period. Ali Kashmiri ibn Luqman built seamless celestial spheres (hollow and spherical model of celestial sphere without any joints) in 1598 AD. One such globe is in Albert Museum in London and another is a prized item of Smithsonian museum in USA, unfortunately none back home in Kashmir. Paper industry was well developed in Kashmir in 1917 AD and world’s best quality paper was made here.